How does particle size affect emulsion?
The particle size of the emulsion is inversely proportional to the concentration of the surfactant, as higher concentrations of surfactants are required to coat the larger surface area attributable to a larger number of smaller particles.
What is the particle size of an emulsion?
The most obvious physical characteristic of an emulsion is the size of the oil droplets. These droplets must be greater than 0.1 micrometer (µm) to avoid being classified as a colloidal suspension. In practice, most commercial emulsions have particles ranging from about 0.2 µm to 100 µm in diameter.
How do you reduce particle size in emulsion?
Increase in oil concentration at the same S/O ratio caused particle size reduction for emulsions with PG but not for emulsions with GLY. The reduction in particle size was also greater for emulsions containing PG. Further, particle size of emulsions containing PG was found to be stable over 24 hours after dilution.
What is ideal size in micrometers of globules for fine emulsions?
In the United States, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has set standards that intravenous fat emulsions must have a mean globule size of less than 500nm in diameter and a percentage of fat globules greater than 5μm in diameter (PFAT5) of no more than 0.05% [13, 14].
What is globule size in emulsion?
The coalescence of fat globules in intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) can cause pulmonary embolisms in small blood vessels with diameters ranging between 4 and 9 µm and in larger blood vessels that have diameters ~20 µm. The volume weighted percent of PFAT5 (percentage of fat greater than 5 µm) must not exceed 0.05%.
What is globule size?
They are oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by an emulsifier that imparts a net negative charge to the surface of the globules which stabilizes the dispersion. The mean droplet size of commercial IVLEs is approximately 300 nm.
What is emulsion flocculation?
Flocculation is when the emulsion droplets aggregate and thereby form larger units. Coalescence is when smaller droplets merge together forming a larger droplet. This occurs when droplets come in contact with each other and the interfacial film is ruptured. Eventually the phase separation will happen.
What is globule size distribution?
These two regions of the globule size distribution (mean droplet size and large-diameter tail) must be controlled within specified limits. The two methods described below are used for determination of the mean lipid droplet diameter and the distribution of large-diameter globule sizes in lipid injectable emulsions.
What are the two 2 stages of emulsion?
It consists of two phases continuous phase and dispersed phase. When Water act as a dispersed phase in oil which is a continuous phase in the emulsion is called water-in-oil emulsion and when oil act as a dispersed phase in water which is a continuous phase in the emulsion is called oil-in-water as shown in Fig.
How does an emulsion break?
Why do emulsions break? Making an emulsion is fairly easy, but it can be a little delicate. Often if the temperature is too high or the olive oil is added too quickly then the mixture can lose its ability to hold together. When this happens, the emulsification has “broken” or “separated.”
What is ideal size in micrometer of globules for emulsion?
The intensity-weighted mean droplet diameter (MDD) for lipid injectable emulsions must be less than 500 nm or 0.5 µm, irrespective of the concentration of the dispersed lipid phase.
What is ideal size in micrometer of globules?
The most critical parameter is the diameter of a lipid droplet, i.e. droplet size distribution. It is recommended that droplet size should not be more than 5 microm and that the presence of greater droplets should not exceede the value of 0.05%.
How do you find the size of a pore throat?
Pore size can be estimated visually by using an SEM (scanning electron microscope), for example. Pore throat sizes for a rock can be measured using capillary pressure–mercury injection tests, which can be converted to a distribution or profile of pore throat sizes for a sample. Erlich et al.
What are the mechanisms of emulsion formation in porous medium?
Conclusions In porous medium, the formation mechanisms of emulsion are mainly snapping action of residual oil and shearing action of emulsifier solution. Migration distance, emulsifier concentration and injection rate affect the particle size and stability of emulsion formed.
What is pore size distribution in porous media?
In the vast majority of porous media, the pore sizes are distributed over a wide spectrum of values, called “pore size distribution”. On the other word pore size distribution is a probability density function giving the distribution of pore volume by a characteristic pore size.
What is the volume assigned to a particular pore size?
The pore in the interconnected pore space, however are not separated objects, and the volume assigned to a particular pore size depends on both the experimental method and the pore structure model used. Methods of measurement