Is kala-azar a tropical disease?
Along with Chagas disease and sleeping sickness, kala azar is one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Kala azar is endemic in 76 countries with approximately 200 million people at risk of infection.
Which disease is caused by kala-azar?
Leishmaniasis is caused by a protozoa parasite from over 20 Leishmania species. Over 90 sandfly species are known to transmit Leishmania parasites. There are 3 main forms of the disease: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar is fatal if left untreated in over 95% of cases.
Why leishmaniasis is called kala-azar?
Light colored person show grayish discoloration of the skin of hands, feet, abdomen and face which gives the Indian name Kala-Azar meaning “Black fever”.
Is kala-azar eradicated from India?
The eradication of kala azar in India is achievable and there are favorable circumstances for doing so. Humans are the only reservoir host in this region for the parasite causing the disease. The only way the disease spreads from human to human is by one insect in the region, Phlebotomus argentipes.
Is kala-azar contagious?
Leishmaniasis is not contagious person to person. Sand fly bites are necessary to transfer the parasite from the sand fly to the human. The sand fly is the vector for the disease.
Which organ is severely affected in kala-azar?
Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as VL or kala-azar) affects internal organs such as the liver and spleen. VL is fatal if not treated. A condition called post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) may arise six months or more after apparent cure from VL.
Where are sandflies found in India?
Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides.
Is kala-azar caused by mosquitoes?
What causes kala azar? Kala azar is caused by bites from female phlebotomine sandflies – the vector (or transmitter) of the leishmania parasite. The sand flies feed on animals and humans for blood, which they need for developing their eggs.
Why kala-azar turns skin black?
Visceral leishmaniasis Skin pigmentation may be a feature (“kala azar”: black disease). It may be asymptomatic and self-resolving, but usually runs a chronic course and may be fatal without or despite treatment. Death usually occurs because of severe secondary bacterial infections in advanced disease.
What is Kala azar and why is it so deadly?
Kala Azar, the second-largest parasitic killer in the world after malaria, is quite deadly. Known as Kala Azar, Black Fever and visceral leishmaniasis, the disease kills 95% of its victims if left untreated. This “Poor Man’s Disease” can be very hypocritical.
What is Kala azar (black fever)?
Known as Kala Azar, Black Fever and visceral leishmaniasis, the disease kills 95% of its victims if left untreated. This “Poor Man’s Disease” can be very hypocritical.
What are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)?
Nearly one in six people worldwide suffer from neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). This collection of diseases primarily impact those living in poverty, who commonly contract them through bites from insects or by having contact with contaminated water or soil.