What are 7 signs of organophosphate poisoning?
The clinical signs of organophosphate poisoning occur as a result of excess acetylcholine at nerve endings, which mimics hyperactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system. Signs relative to the alimentary tract include excess salivation, lacrimation, abdominal pain, vomiting, intestinal hypermotility, and diarrhea.
What happens in organophosphate poisoning?
Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates (OPs). Organophosphates are used as insecticides, medications, and nerve agents. Symptoms include increased saliva and tear production, diarrhea, vomiting, small pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and confusion.
What are the clinical features of organophosphate poisoning?
Signs and symptoms of mild to moderately severe toxicity include tightness in the chest, wheezing, increased sweating, salivation, and lacrimation, as well as GI effects including nausea, vomiting, cramps, watery diarrhea, and involuntary defecation/urination. Pupils are constricted.
How do you confirm organophosphate poisoning?
In general, intact organophosphates cannot be detected in the blood due to rapid hydrolysis by the liver. Therefore, the most commonly used test to confirm acute organophosphate poisoning is measurement of plasma cholinesterase activity.
What are muscarinic symptoms?
Muscarinic effects by organ system include the following: Cardiovascular – Bradycardia, hypotension. Respiratory – Rhinorrhea, bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, cough, severe respiratory distress. Gastrointestinal – Hypersalivation, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fecal incontinence.
What is acute organophosphate poisoning?
Definition. Acute organophosphorus poisoning occurs after dermal, respiratory, or oral exposure to either low volatility pesticides (e.g., chlorpyrifos, dimethoate) or high volatility nerve agents (e.g., sarin, tabun).
What are symptoms and treatment for acute organophosphorus poisoning?
Respiratory symptoms are common in OP poisoning. Muscarinic effects of salivation, rhinorrhea, bronchorrhea and bronchospasm contributed to hypoxemia and increased work of breathing. Nicotinic effects result in muscle weakness and paralysis and predispose to hypercapnic respiratory failure.
What are the complications of organophosphate poisoning?
Complications include severe bronchorrhea, seizures, weakness, and neuropathy. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death.
Which of the following is more accurate in diagnosis of organophosphate poisoning?
RBC cholinesterase is the more accurate of the two measurements, but plasma cholinesterase is easier to assay and is more readily available.
What is the role of cholinesterase?
Cholinesterase is a family of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) into choline and acetic acid, a reaction necessary to allow a cholinergic neuron to return to its resting state after activation.
What are the symptoms of organophosphate toxicity?
Organophosphates are used as medications, insecticides, and nerve agents as a weapon. Symptoms include increased saliva and tear production, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, small pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and confusion. The onset of symptoms is often within minutes, and it can take weeks to disappear.
What are the treatment options for organophosphate (OP) toxicity?
The mainstays of medical therapy in organophosphate (OP) poisoning include atropine, pralidoxime (2-PAM), and benzodiazepines (eg, diazepam). Initial management must focus on adequate use of atropine.
What is the prognosis of organophosphate toxicity?
Organophosphate poisoning may cause significant morbidity and mortality due to seizure activity. Organophosphates (i.e., nerve agents) induce seizures that progress through three stages. The first 5 minutes of exposure precipitates seizures due to cholinergic overstimulation.
What are organophosphates used for?
Organophosphates are used as medications, insecticides, and nerve agents as a weapon. Symptoms include increased saliva and tear production, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, small pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and confusion.