What does extra-axial fluid mean?
Extra-axial fluid is characterized by excessive cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, particularly over the frontal lobes. The amount of extra-axial fluid detected as early as 6 months was predictive of more severe autism spectrum disorder symptoms at the time of outcome.
What causes benign extra-axial fluid of infancy?
The causes of a large head include hydrocephalus (an excess volume of CSF intracranially), megalencephaly (enlargement of the brain), thickening of the skull and hemorrhage or non-bloody fluid into the subdural or epidural spaces (1, 2).
What causes extra-axial fluid?
Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo occurs when a stroke or injury damages the brain and brain matter actually shrinks. The brain may shrink in older patients or those with Alzheimer’s disease, and CSF volume increases to fill the extra space. In these instances, the ventricles are enlarged, but the pressure usually is normal.
Where is the extra-axial space?
CSF is also found centrally within the ventricles. The sulci, fissures, basal cisterns and ventricles together form the ‘CSF spaces’, also known as the ‘extra-axial spaces’. CSF is of lower density than the grey or white matter of the brain, and therefore appears darker on CT images.
Is fluid in the brain serious?
Cerebrospinal fluid normally flows through the ventricles and bathes the brain and spinal column. But the pressure of too much cerebrospinal fluid associated with hydrocephalus can damage brain tissues and cause a range of brain function problems.
What does extra-axial tumor mean?
Extra-axial tumors are lesions, neoplastic and not, which are external to the brain parenchyma and can originate in the skull, meninges, cranial nerves, and brain appendages such as the pituitary gland. Surgery provides a diagnosis and can be the first step in the treatment.
How common is bessi?
A recent study in Norway reported the incidence to be 0.4 per 1000 live births. Some patients seem to have a genetic propensity to BEH. The cause of BEH is debated but is most commonly felt to be because of immature arachnoid villi.
What is benign Macrocrania?
Idiopathic external hydrocephalus, or benign macrocrania, was defined as a self-limited external hydrocephalus that resolved without treatment and was closely related to benign familial macrocrania (2).
What is fluid in the brain?
Cerebrospinal fluid is the liquid around your brain and spinal cord. If a doctor thinks you have an illness that affects your nervous system, they might take a sample for testing. The fluid is made by a group of cells, called the choroid plexus, that are deep inside your brain.
Is extra-axial fluid normal in infants with macrocrania?
Benign extra-axial collections of infancy The clinical histories, physical examinations and results of head computed tomography and head ultrasound scans were reviewed in a group of 15 infants who had macrocrania, excessive extra-axial fluid and normal development. Diagnostic evaluations demonstrated mild ventriculomegaly and extra-axial fl …
What are the diagnostic criteria for extraaxial fluid measurement in infants?
Sonography of extraaxial fluid in neurologically normal infants with head circumference greater than or equal the 95th percentile for age. J Ultrasound Med. 2000;19:443–7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 34. Lam WW, Ai VH, Wong V, Leong LI. Ultrasonographic measurement of subarachnoid space in normal infants and children.
What is benign enlargement of the subarachnoid space in infancy?
Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid space in infancy. Dr Mohammad Taghi Niknejad and Dr Bruno Di Muzio ◈ et al. Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infancy (BESS or BESSI) also known as benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) is, as per the name, a benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infants.
What is the prognosis of subarachnoid space fluid collection?
Although the macrocephaly may persist, the subarachnoid space fluid collection will resolve or become minimal as the child grows older.