What is Mudpiles mnemonic?
The mnemonic was MUDPILES: Methanol, Uremia, Diabetic ketoacidosis (or alcoholic ketoacidosis,) Paraldehyde, Iron (or Isoniazid,) Lactic acidosis, Ethylene glycol, and Salicylates. Recent evidence indicates that this mnemonic is no longer adequate because it misses a number of important toxicological causes.
What is an anion gap acidosis?
High anion gap metabolic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis characterized by a high anion gap (a medical value based on the concentrations of ions in a patient’s serum). Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid, or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
How do you remember acidosis?
Now, if a patient’s pH falls below 7.35, they are in a state of acidosis (remember the acidic-lemon?). If the patient’s pH is above 7.45, the patient would be in a state of alkalosis (the elk-loser).
How do you explain anion gap to patients?
The anion gap is a measurement of the difference-or gap-between the negatively charged and positively charged electrolytes. If the anion gap is either too high or too low, it may be a sign of a disorder in your lungs, kidneys, or other organ systems.
How do you remember the anion gap equation?
Therefore we propose a new anion gap mnemonic for the 21st century: GOLD MARK. This acronym represents Glycols (ethylene and propylene), Oxoproline, L-lactate, D-lactate, Methanol, Aspirin, Renal failure, and Ketoacidosis.
What does an anion gap of 13 mean?
An anion gap number between 3 and 10 is considered normal. But the “normal” range can vary from person to person, and it may also depend on the methods your lab used to do the test.
What does an anion gap of 3 mean?
Keep in mind that even if your anion gap is high or low, that doesn’t necessarily mean you have a serious health problem. An anion gap number between 3 and 10 is considered normal. But the “normal” range can vary from person to person, and it may also depend on the methods your lab used to do the test.
What causes an anion gap?
High anion gap acidoses are most often due to ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, chronic kidney disease, or certain toxic ingestions. Normal anion gap acidoses are most often due to gastrointestinal or renal HCO 3 − loss.
What is acid-base Mnemonic?
They are H2SO4 (or sulfuric acid), HI (hydrologic acid), HBr (hydrobromic acid), HNO3 (nitric acid), HCl (hydrochloric acid) and HClO4 (perchloric acid). The mnemonic that I can use to help you memorize these six strong acids is: So I Brought No Clean Clothes.
How do you calculate the anion gap?
Expressed in words, the equation is: Anion Gap = Sodium – (Chloride + Bicarbonate) which is logically equivalent to: Anion Gap = (the most prevalent cation) minus (the sum of the most prevalent anions)
What makes up the anion gap?
The anion gap is the difference between primary measured cations (sodium Na+ and potassium K+) and the primary measured anions (chloride Cl- and bicarbonate HCO3-) in serum.
What causes anion gap?
An anion gap acidosis occurs when the substances responsible for causing metabolic acidosis are unmeasurable or not indicated by anions or cations (i.e. electrolytes). This mnemonic provides some specific conditions that would produce an anion gap acidosis.
Why is it important to calculate the anion gap?
Calculation of the anion gap is particularly useful in cases of metabolic acidosis since it can help in formulating a differential diagnosis10. There are two main categories of metabolic acidosis: high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis (NAGMA).
What causes anion gap to be high in diabetes?
The cause of high anion gap acidosis may be obvious as in diabetic ketoacidosis, hypovolemic shock, or missed hemodialysis. Other data that is helpful in determining the cause include arterial blood gas (ABG), serum electrolytes, lactate and possible toxins. Elevation in anion gap indicates a metabolic acidosis.
Is sodium bicarbonate good for high anion gap acidosis?
However, treatment with sodium bicarbonate for high anion gap acidosis is controversial and is typically used only in cases of severe metabolic acidosis when the bicarbonate is very low and the pH is below 7.1 (Emmett and Szerlip, 2019). Here are some helpful ways to remember the causes of high anion gap acidosis.