What is social comparison theory Festinger?
Social comparison theory was first proposed in 1954 by psychologist Leon Festinger and suggested that people have an innate drive to evaluate themselves, often in comparison to others. As she evaluates her skills and progress, she will compare her performance to other students in the class.
What does the social comparison theory state?
Social comparison theory is the idea that individuals determine their own social and personal worth based on how they stack up against others. The theory was developed in 1954 by psychologist Leon Festinger.
What are the types of social comparison theory?
Three types of social comparison are proposed in the theory: (a) upward social comparison, or comparing oneself with someone judged to be better than oneself (e.g., by having more wealth or material goods, higher social standing, greater physical attractiveness); (b) downward social comparison, or comparing oneself …
Who proposed social comparison theory?
Such social comparison may be based on a variety of criteria like intelligence, looks and economic status. The social comparison theory was first proposed by American social psychologist Leon Festinger in his 1954 paper “A theory of social comparison processes”.
What is the importance of social comparison theory?
Social comparison theory also suggests that social comparison has an important influence on human behavior and psychology (Festinger, 1954). Based on previous studies, it may be established that social comparison is closely related to social adaptation.
What is the positive effect of upward comparison by Festinger?
Upward social comparison can be helpful because it allows for self-enhancement; for example, we might feel motivated to improve our performance (Collins, 1996).
How is social comparison theory relevant to the formation of an individual’s social identity?
People compare themselves with fellow group members, they compare themselves with people in other groups, and they compare their own group with other groups. From these comparisons emerge group norms, group structure, and intergroup relations, which in turn provide the framework for group-based social comparisons.
What is the difference between upward social comparison and downward social comparison?
When we engage in upward social comparison, we compare ourselves to someone who is (perceived to be or performing) better than we are. In contrast, when we engage in downward social comparison, we compare ourselves to someone who is (perceived to be or performing) worse than we are.
When we engage in social comparisons we might be?
When one engages in social comparison, they are usually attempting (consciously or subconsciously) to self-evaluate or self-enhance. Self-evaluation via the this theory takes place when they choose to compare themselves to someone to gain a better sense of themselves, and where they are in their lives.
What are the three primary motivations for social comparisons?
Festinger (1954) proposed that social comparison was driven by a need to evaluate ourselves so that we had more information about ourselves; however, more recent theory suggests that social comparison is motivated by three drives (Gibbons & Buunk, 1999): Self-evaluation. Self-improvement. Self-enhancement.
What are the benefits of social comparison?
Types of Social Comparison
- Can increase positive affect.
- Can decrease negative moods.
- Can increase optimism about the future.
- Can enhance self-esteem.
- Can increase relationship satisfaction.
What is social comparison?
Social comparison refers to a behavior where we compare certain aspects of ourselves (e.g., our behavior, opinions, status, and success) to other people so that we have a better assessment of ourselves (Buunk & Gibbons, 2007).
What was Festinger advanced theory?
Picking up waste.
What is social comparison theory?
Social comparison theory was founded by Leon Festinger, a social psychologist, in the 1950’s. Social comparison theory asserts that individuals are motivated to evaluate themselves with accuracy. Ideas, values, and attitudes are measured by comparing ourselves to others to obtain an accurate sense of self.
What are social comparisons?
The presence of a partner can attenuate physiological fear responses, a phenomenon known as social buffering. However, not all individuals are equally sociable. Here we investigated whether social buffering of fear is shaped by sensitivity to social anxiety (social concern) and whether these effects are different in females and males.
What is social comparison psychology?
Social comparison theory was first proposed in 1954 by psychologist Leon Festinger and suggested that people have an innate drive to evaluate themselves, often in comparison to others. People make all kinds of judgments about themselves, and one of the key ways that we do this is through social comparison, or analyzing the self in relation to others.