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What are the symptoms of Shigella spp?

What are the symptoms of Shigella spp?

Symptoms of shigellosis include: Diarrhea (sometimes bloody) Fever. Stomach pain….People with diarrhea should contact their healthcare provider if they have any of these symptoms:

  • Fever.
  • Bloody diarrhea.
  • Severe stomach cramping or tenderness.
  • Dehydrated.
  • Feel very sick.

What are significant signs of acute bacterial meningitis?


  • Sudden high fever.
  • Stiff neck.
  • Severe headache that seems different from normal.
  • Headache with nausea or vomiting.
  • Confusion or difficulty concentrating.
  • Seizures.
  • Sleepiness or difficulty waking.
  • Sensitivity to light.

What is the pathophysiology of Shigella?

Shigella bacteria invade the intestinal epithelium through M cells and proceed to spread from cell to cell, causing death and sloughing of contiguously invaded epithelial cells and inducing a potent inflammatory response resulting in the characteristic dysentery syndrome.

How is Shigella diagnosed?

Infection is diagnosed when a laboratory identifies Shigella in the stool (poop) of an ill person. The test could be a culture that isolates the bacteria or a rapid diagnostic test that detects genetic material of the bacteria.

What is acute pyogenic meningitis?

Pyogenic meningitis, also referred as bacterial meningitis, is a life-threatening CNS infectious disease affecting the meninges, with elevated mortality and disability rates. Three bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis) account for the majority of cases 4,5.

What is pneumococcal meningitis?

Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (also called pneumococcus, or S pneumoniae). This type of bacteria is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. It is the second most common cause of meningitis in children older than age 2. Risk factors include: Alcohol use.

What is the difference between meningitis and meningococcal?

What is the difference between bacterial meningococcal disease and viral meningitis? Bacterial meningococcal disease, including meningococcal meningitis, usually has a more sudden onset and is a more severe illness than viral meningitis.

What is the epidemiology of Shigella?

Epidemiology. Shigellosis is endemic in developing countries were sanitation is poor. Typically 10 to 20 percent of enteric disease, and 50% of the bloody diarrhea or dysentery of young children, can be characterized as shigellosis, and the prevalence of these infections decreases significantly after five years of life …

What is the importance of Shigella?

Shigella species cause an estimated 167 million episodes of diarrhea worldwide and over a million deaths. S. sonnei is predominantly responsible for dysentery in developed countries but is replacing S. flexneri as a problem in the developing world.

What is Shigella diagnosis?

What is hyponatremia in electrolytes?

Hyponatremia is an important and common electrolyte abnormality that can be seen in isolation or, as most often is the case, as a complication of other medical illnesses (eg, heart failure, liver failure, renal failure, pneumonia).The normal serum sodium level is 135-145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium level of less than 135 mEq/L.

What is pseudohyponatremia?

The measured sodium concentration in the total plasma volume is respectively reduced, although the plasma water sodium concentration and plasma osmolality are unchanged. This artifactual low sodium (so-called pseudohyponatremia) is secondary to measurement by flame photometry.

What is hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome?

Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome, a rare condition, consists of severe hypertension associated with renal artery stenosis, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, severe thirst, and renal dysfunction characterized by natriuresis, hypercalciuria, renal glycosuria, and proteinuria.

What are the possible complications of rapid correction of hyponatremia?

Correction of serum sodium that is too rapid can precipitate severe neurologic complications. Most individuals who present for diagnosis, versus individuals who develop it while in an inpatient setting, have had hyponatremia for some time, so the condition is chronic, and correction should proceed accordingly.

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